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Diamond found containing a rare mineral never seen before on the Earth's surface
Geologists recently unearthed a diamond that contained a mineral that had never been seen before on the Earth's surface, as it becomes unstable above a depth of 650 km (400 miles).

The discovered mineral, which is called calcium silicate perovskite (CaSiO3), was discovered to be trapped inside a diamond which was recently excavated from the Premier Mine in Cullinan town of South Africa. The mine also holds the distinction of producing the world's largest diamond in 1905. Some pieces of that diamond are part of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom.

The finding has been published in the journal Nature. This discovery of a new mineral will lead to great insights about how the Earth's insides behave.

The mineral calcium silicate perovskite might be rare to come by but it is believed to be abundantly present inside the Earth. So much so that it's thought to be the fourth most abundant mineral present inside the Earth. Its occurrence is expected to be mostly in the areas where the slabs of the oceanic crust have taken a dive into Earth's mantle near the tectonic boundaries.

The co-author of the study and the professor in the University of Alberta's Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Graham Pearson, said, "Nobody has ever managed to keep this mineral stable at the Earth's surface and the only possible way of preserving this mineral at the Earth's surface is when it is trapped in an unyielding container, just like a diamond."

This chunk of the mineral was quite vividly visible to the naked eye and could be easily seen trapped inside the diamond once it was polished. However, the proper analysis and imaging of the same required an international effort.

It was only after the confirmation given by X-ray and spectroscopy techniques that the diamond did contain calcium silicate perovskite, the researchers published the finding in the journal.

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